Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model

  • Wei-Bin ZHANG Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
Keywords: Economic Growth, Gender, Gender-Differentiated Time Distribution, Learning By Education, Propensity To Receive Education.

Abstract

This paper is mainly concerned with relationships between economic growth and gender discrimination in labor markets and education. Although discrimination in different fields has well been addresses and modelled in the economic literature, there are only a few growth models with endogenous wealth and human capital accumulation, gender time distribution between work, leisure and education under gender (positive or negative) discrimination. The production and economic structures, human capital accumulation are based on the Uzawa-Lucas model, while the utility function and gender division of labor, leisure time and study time are based on the model by Zhang. The model takes account of learning by education in modeling human capital accumulation. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the national economy. We also conduct a comparative dynamic analysis in regard to changes in discrimination in the education sector, women’s propensity to stay at home, women’s propensity to receive education, women’s knowledge utilization efficiency, and the propensity to save.

Author Biography

Wei-Bin ZHANG, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
Professor at College of International Management, APU

References

Aghion, P., & Howitt, P. (1998). Endogenous Growth Theory. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Agnes, A.D., Göran, D., & Johanna, B.L. (2013). Geography of Gender Gaps: Regional Patterns of Income and Farm–Nonfarm Interaction Among Male- and Female-Headed Households in Eight African Countries. World Development, 48, 32-47.

Akhmedjonov, A. (2012). New Evidence on Pay Gap between Men and Women in Turkey. Economics Letters, 117, 32-34.

Albanesi, S., & Olivetti, C. (2009). Home Production, Market Production and the Gender Wage Gap: Incentives and Expectations. Review of Economic Dynamics, 12, 80-107.

Alonso-Carrera, J., & Freire-Sere, M. J. (2004). Multiple Equilibria, Fiscal Policy and Human Capital Accumulation. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 28, 841-56.

Altonji, J. G., & Blank, R. M. (1999). Race and Gender in the Labor Market. in Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (eds) Handbook of Labor Economics 3. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

Antecol, H. (2000) An Examination of Cross-country Differences in the Gender Gap in Labor Force Participation Rates. Labor Economics 7, 409-26.

Antecol, H., & Kuhn, P. (2000) Gender as an Impediment to Labor Market Success: Why Do Young Women Report Greater Harm? Journal of Labor Economics 18, 702-28.

Arrow, K.J. (1962) The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing. Review of Economic Studies 29, 155-173.

Arrow, K.J. (1972) The Theory of Discrimination. In: Ashenfelter, O., & Rees, A. (eds) Discrimination in the Labor Markets. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Arrow, K. J. (1973) Higher Education as a Filter. Journal of Public Economics 2, 193-216.

Azariadis, C. (1993) Intertemporal Macroeconomics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Bandiera, O., & Natraj, A. (2013) Does Gender Inequality Hinder Development and Economic Growth? Evidence and Policy Implications. Journal of Economic Literature 50, 1051-79.

Banerjee, N. (1999) Can Markets Alter Gender Relations? Gender, Technology and Development 3, 103-22.

Bar, M., & Leukhina, O. (2011) On the Time Allocation of Married Couples Since 1960. Journal of Macroeconomics 33, 491-510.

Barro, R.J. (2001) Human Capital and Growth. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 91, 12-17.

Barro, R.J., & X. Sala-i-Martin (1995) Economic Growth. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Bartolucci, C. (2013) Gender Wage Gaps Reconsidered: A Structural Approach Using Matched Employer-Employee Data. Journal of Human Resources 48, 998-1034.

Becker, G. S. (1957) The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Becker, G.S. (1965) A Theory of the Allocation of Time. Economic Journal 75: 493-517.

Becker, G. S. (1985) Human Capital, Effort and the Sexual Division of Labor. Journal of Labor Economics 3, 33–58.

Beneria, L., & Feldman, S.(1992, eds.) Unequal Burden: Economic Crises, Persistent Poverty, and Women’s Work. Boulder: Westview.

Benhabib, J., & Perli, R. (1994) Uniqueness and Indeterminacy: On the Dynamics of Endogenous Growth. Journal of Economic Theory 63, 113-42.

Biagetti, M., & Sergio, S. (2009) Inequality in Workers’ Lifelong Learning Across European Countries: Evidence from EU-SILC Data-set. MPRA Paper 17356.

Black, S.E. and Brainerd, E. (2004) Imposing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 57, 540-59.

Blau, F. (1998) Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970–1995. Journal of Economic Literature 36, 112–65.

Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (1992) The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons. American Economic Review 82, 533-38.

Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L.M. (1997) Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in the 1980s. Journal of Labor Economics 15, 1–42.

Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000) Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 75-99.

Bose, M., Ahmad, A., & Hossai, M. (2009) The Role of Gender in Economic Activities with Special Reference to Women’s Participation and Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh. Gender, Technology and Development 13, 69-102.

Boserup, E. (1970) Woman’s Role in Economic Development. London: Allen & Unwin.

Bowlus, A. (1997) A Search Interpretation of Male-Female Wage Differentials. Journal of Labor Economics 15, 625–57.

Bowlus, A., & Eckstein, Z. (2002) Discrimination and Skill Differences in an Equilibrium Search Model. International Economic Review 43, 1309–45.

Burmeister, E., & Dobell, A.R. (1970) Mathematical Theories of Economic Growth. London: Collier Macmillan Publishers.

Campbell, J.Y., & Ludvigson, S. (2001) Elasticities of Substitution in Real Business Cycle Models with Home Production. Journal of Money, Credit and Bankings 33, 847-75.

Charness, G., & Gneezy, U. (2012) Strong Evidence for Gender Differences in Risk Taking. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 83, 50-58.

Castelló-Climent, A., & Hidalgo-Cabrillana, A. (2012) The Role of Education Quality and Quantity in the Process of Economic Development. Economics of Education Review (forthcoming).

Chanda, A. (2008) The Rise in Returns to Education and the Decline in Household Savings. Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control 34, 436-69.

Chaudhuri, K., & Roy, S. (2006) Do Parents Spread Educational Expenditure Evenly Across the Two Genders? Evidence from Two North Indian States. Economic and Political Weekly 41, 5276—282.

Chen, Z.H., Ge, Y., Lai, H.W., & Wan, C. (2013) Globalization and Gender Wage Inequality in China. World Development 44, 256-66.

Chiappori, P.A. (1992) Introducing Household Production in Collective Models of Labor Supply. Journal of Political Economy 105, 191-209.

Croson, R., & Gneezy, U. (2009) Gender Differences in Preferences. Journal of Economic Literature 47, 448-74.

De Hek, P.A. (2005) On Taxation in a Two-Sector Endogenous Growth Model with Endogenous Labor Supply. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 30, 655-85.

Dittrich, M., Knabe, A., & Leipold, K. (2014) Gender Differences in Experimental Wage Negotiations. Economic Inquiry (forthcoming).

Dittrich, M., & Leipold, K.(2014) Gender Differences in Time Preferences. Economics Letters (forthcoming).

Dolado, J.J., Felgueroso, F., & Jimeno, J.F. (2001) Female Employment and Occupational Changes in the 1990s: How Is the EU Performing Relative to the US? European Economic Review 45, 875-89.

Dozier, D.M., Sha, B.L., & Shen, H.M. (2013) Why Women Earn Less than Man: The Cost of Gender Discrimination in U.S. Public Relations. Public Relations Journal 7, 1-21.

Duflo, E. (2012) Women Employment and Economic Development. Journal of Economic Literature 50, 1051-79.

Dwyer, P. D., & Gilkeson, J.H.,and List, J.A. (2002) Gender Differences in Revealed Risk Taking: Evidence From Mutual Fund Investors. Economics Letters 76, 151-58.

Echevarria, C., & Merlo, A. (1999) Gender Differences in Education in a Dynamic Household Bargaining Model. International Economic Review 40, 265-86.

Eckel, C., & Grossman, P. (1998) Are Women Less Selfish Than Men? Evidence from Dictator Experiments. Economic Journal 108, 726-35.

Eckel, C., & Grossman, P. (2001) Chivalry and Solidarity in Ultimatum Games. Economic Inquiry 39, 171-88.

Eckstein, Z., & Lifshitz, O. (2011) Dynamic Female Labor Supply. Econometrica 79, 1675-726.

Fernández, R. (2007) Alfred Marshall Lecture Women, Work, and Culture. Journal of the European Economic Association 5, 305-32.

Flabbi, L. (2010) Gender Discrimination Estimation in a Search Model with Matching and Bargaining. International Economic Review 51, 745-83.

Fogli, A., & Veldkamp, L. (2011) Nature or Nurture? Learning and the Geography of Female Labor Force Participation. Econometrica 79, 1103-38.

Folbre, N. (2009) Greed, Lust & Gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Forsythe, N., Korzeniewicz, R.P., & Durrant, V. (2000) Gender Inequalities and Economic Growth: A Longitudinal Evaluation. Economic Development and Cultural Change 48, 573-17.

Francois, P. (1998) Gender Discrimination Without Gender Difference: Theory and Policy Responses. Journal of Public Economics 68, 1-32.

Funke, M., & Strulik, H. (2000) On Endogenous Growth with Physical Capital, Human Capital and Product Variety. European Economic Review 44, 491-515.

Goldin, C. (1990) Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women. Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Gomme, P., Kydland, F.E., & Rupert, P. (2001) Home Production Meets Time to Build. The Journal of Political Economy, 1115-31.

Greenwood, J., & Hercowitz, Z. (1991) The Allocation of Capital and Time over the Business Cycle. The Journal of Political Economy 99, 1188-214.

Grossman, G.M., & Helpman, E. (1991) Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. Mass., Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Gutierrez, M. (2003, eds.) Macro-Economics: Making Gender Matter. London: Zed Books.

Hadfield, G. K. (1999) A Coordination Model of the Sexual Division of Labor. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 40, 125-53.

Hanushek, E., & Kimko, D. (2000) Schooling, Labor-Force Quality and the Growth of Nations. American Economic Review 90, 1194-204.

Heckman, J. J. (1998) Detecting Discrimination. Journal of Economic Perspective 12, 101–16.

Heyman, F., Svaleryd, H., & Vlachos, J. (2013) Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination. ILR Review 66, 409-32.

Hutton, J. G. (2005). The Myth of Salary Discrimination in Public Relations. Public Relations Review 31, 73-83.

Jianakoplos, N. A., & Bernasek, A. (1998) Are Women More Risk Averse?. Economic Inquiry 36, 620-30.

Jolliffe, D. (2002) The Gender Wage Gap in Bulgaria: A Semiparametric Estimation of Discrimination. Journal of Comparative Economics 30, 276-95.

Jonathan, G., & Kerwin, K. C. (2013) Taste-based or Statistical Discrimination: The Economics of Discrimination Returns to its Roots, Economic Journal 123, 417-32.

Jones, L.E., Manuelli, R.E., & Rossi, P.E. (1993) Optimal Taxation in Models of Endogenous Growth. Journal of Political Economy 101, 485-517.

Kingdon, G. (2005) Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intra-Household Allocation of Educational Expenditure. Economic Development and Cultural Change 53, 409-52.

Krueger, A.B., & Lindahl, M. (2001) Education for Growth: Why and for Whom. Journal of Economic Literature 39, 1101-36.

Kuhn, P., & Shen, K.L. (2013) Gender Discrimination on Job Ads: Evidence from China. Quarterly Journal of Economics 128, 287-336.

Kumar, A. (2013) Preference Based vs. Market Based Discrimination: Implications for Gender Differentials in Child Labor and Schooling. Journal of Development Economics 105, 64-68.
Published
2014-08-18
How to Cite
ZHANG, W.-B. (2014). Gender Discrimination, Education and Economic Growth in a Generalized Uzawa-Lucas Two-Sector Model. Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business, 7(1), 1-34. Retrieved from http://tjeb.ro/index.php/tjeb/article/view/TJEB7-1_1to34
Section
Articles